试论中国的诊所式法学教育论文

日期:2018-02-10 / 人气: / 来源:http://www.rzfanyi.com/ 作者:译声翻译公司

论文摘要 本文阐述了诊所式法学教育的基本概况和中国的现状,并针对我国诊所式法学教育的具体情况提出了具有我国特有的发展思路。 论文关键词 诊所式法学教育 送法下基层 选修
论文摘要 本文阐述了诊所式法学教育的基本概况和中国的现状,并针对我国诊所式法学教育的具体情况提出了具有我国特有的发展思路。
  论文关键词 诊所式法学教育 送法下基层 选修课程
  一、诊所式法学教育的概述
  诊所式法学教育属于舶来品,最早出现于英国,准律师们为执业律师做书记员并阅读各种法律文件,从真实案例中学习法律知识,这算是诊所式法学教育的雏形。诊所式法律教育正式产生于20世纪20年代末的南加利福尼亚大学法学院,其时的首创人是约翰·布莱维。真正在美国兴起并作为一种教育方法则到了20世纪60年代。法律诊所教育借鉴了医学院的诊所教育模式,让学生在一个真实的名曰“法律诊所”的地方,在教师的指导下为处于困境中的委托人提供咨询,“诊断”他们的法律问题,开出“处方”,为他们提供解决问题的方法,并为其提供法律服务。
  诊所式法学教育之所以能够受到世界各国法学界的普遍认同,就在于它有着传统法学教育无法比拟的优势:首先转变了传统教学的说教式、填鸭式的教学方法,使学生的学习变被动为主动。我们可以设想两种场景:传统教学中,教师在臺上高谈阔论,臺下的大片学生昏昏欲睡。诊所式教学中,学生们主动咨询案情、查阅资料并进行集体会诊。哪种教学方式质量更高,可想而知。清华大学王晨光教授恰如其分的举例所言:当一个人作为乘客坐车时,他不一定会记住行车的路线。但是,当他坐在司机的位置上时,他就必需认路、记路和分析路线。其次增强了法学教育与社会的联系,更加培养了学生们的社会责任感。法学本身就是一门实践性很强的学科,它源于社会而又服务于社会。一旦与社会脱节,则成了无源之水和无本之木。学生们在象牙塔里学习,目的就是成材之后服务于社会,利用其所学为社会创造价值,如果仅仅是在学校埋头苦读不与社会有任何的接触,那麽毕业后就将成为一个空有满腹法学理论而不懂学以致用的书呆子。第三从社会效益上来讲,利用法学诊所这个平臺可以给需要法律援助的社会弱势群体提供帮助,因为一个看似渺小的学生后面可能站着一群具有高深法学理论和实践经验的教授。这样会比当前社会司法系统的法律援助更有效,一方面更促进社会和谐,另一方面使学生学习了知识,增加了实践经验,达到双赢。当代高校的三大职能是教学、科研、服务社会,这些在诊所式法学教育中均能得到体现。
  二、世界其他国家的诊所式法学教育及中国的诊所式法学教育现状
  目前世界上诊所式法学教育最典型的国家就是美国。美国近130个法学院中的绝大部分都设立了诊所法律教育课程。众多非政府组织从财力上给予了大力支持,如福特基金就于1968年一次性出资1200万美元,支持各大法学院建立法律诊所。美国律师协会于1989年设立了“法学院与法律职业工作组”,对必要的法律执业技巧进行深入的研究。一时间,法律诊所得到了极大的发展,迅速成为集知识教育与技能培训于一身的载体,风靡全美。以哈佛法学院的30余个诊所为例,从家庭暴力到儿童权利,从性别歧视到卫生保健,从商事调解到租房纠纷,从刑事公诉到死刑辩护,从个案代理到政策游说,从本土反恐到国际人权,几乎无所不包。然而,在美国的诊所式法律教育得到全面发展的同时,也孕育着生存危机。法律诊所做大做强之后,涉案范围自然也就扩大,由普通案件到公益诉讼案件,乃至以推进制度、立法改革为目标,这样就触动了政府和大财团等当局者的利益,于是乎出臺了一系列的政策来限制其的发展。法律诊所再接案的时候往往会主动回避一些敏感的涉及当局者利益的案件。这就限制了法律诊所的“营业”范围,对学生们的学习造成影响,违背了设立法律诊所的初衷。
  诊所式法学教育进入中国的法学教育领域始于2000年9月,在美国福特基金会的支持下,中国7所高校开设了“法律诊所教育”课程。中国法学会法学教育研究会诊所法律教育专业委员会(CCCLE)将其定义为:法学院学生在一个真实或虚拟的“法律诊所”中,在有律师执业资格的教师的指导下为处于困境中的受援人提供法律咨询,“诊断”他们的法律问题,开出“处方”,为他们提供解决法律问题的方法,并亲自为他们提供无偿的法律援助服务。从法律诊所进入中国至今已有11年,由于其在法学教育中有着无可比拟的优点,11年来诊所式法学教育得到了长足的发展。截止到2010年6月18日,中国诊所法律教育委员会(CCCLE)共有134个会员院校,其中已经有82个会员院校开设了诊所课程,共计开设不同主题诊所课程130个,诊所的内容涉及:民事诉讼、行政诉讼、谈判和调解、公益诉讼、消费者保护、弱者权益保护、农民工法律服务、农村法律服务等领域。但是,我们在看到诊所式法学教育蓬勃发展的同时也应当註意到存在的问题,如一些法学院虽然开设了法律诊所,但因为经费或师资的原因很少或是根本没有运行,还有一些法律诊所因为案源不足而勉强运作。真正运行良好的是那些知名高校的有着雄厚资金和人才支持的法律诊所,这些诊所为即将毕业的法律专业的学生们提供了一个学习法律实务的平臺。但美中不足的是每一届学生中能进入诊所学习的也是少之又少。
  三、关于中国的诊所式法学教育的思考
  前文曾提到,法学源于社会又服务于社会,而诊所式法学教育最终目的是为了使学生真正的把所学到的理论知识和社会实践相结合,从而更加深刻的理解法律、熟练的运用法律。因此,这是一种非常好的法学学习模式。但由于国情不同,照搬照抄国外的诊所式法学教育显然不合中国实际,笔者认为中国的诊所式法学教育应当走出中国特有之路。
  (一)和学生毕业实习相结合,送法下基层
  毕业实习是检验学习效果的一种有效手段,对所学知识起到巩固作用。我国法学专业毕业生的实习去向不外乎公检法部门、律师事务所和一些公司的法务部,去了之后大都是以熟悉司法实务和司法程序为主,能够真正能运用起自己的法学知识倒不多。尽管熟悉司法实务也是实习的目的之一,本无可厚非,但不应当成为实习的唯一目的。
  目前的中国社会里最需要法律帮助的是处于农村或是城市基层的老百姓。在百姓的市井生活中免不了有邻里之间的磕磕碰碰和亲戚朋友之间的纠纷和摩擦,由于他们本身的文化程度就不高,在出现问题时也不知道该如何处理,更不用说用法律来维护自身的合法权益了。人民群众的法律知识缺乏就成为了社会不稳定的因素之一,也不利于和谐社会的建立。
  一方面是大量的法学专业学生不能够有效的实习锻炼,另一方面是广大基层的人民群众的矛盾得不到法律指导。如何调和二者间的矛盾?送法下乡,把诊所开到基层去,这是一个有效的解决办法。首先可以使学生学以致用,通过大量真实案例来检验、巩固所学知识;其次还可以帮助广大人民群众解决生活中的法律问题,调解矛盾,构建和谐的社会环境;同时还降低了实习成本,减轻了学生们的经济压力。
  (二)将诊所式法律教育作为一门选修课程开设
  将诊所式法律教育作为一门任选课程,赋予一定的学分,由高年级学生自由选修,使那些富有热情的学生有机会进入诊所进行学习。这样的开设方式不仅有利于因材施教,能够使学有余力的学生尽早的接触法律实务,同时对学校法律诊所的发展壮大具有积极的意义。
  (三)努力拓宽诊所式法律教育的师资渠道
  在当前社会里,师资缺乏是很多高校的诊所式法律教育不能够得到充分的发展的瓶颈之一。担任法律诊所的指导教师不但要有扎实的法学功底,而且要有丰富的实践经验。要拓宽法律诊所的师资渠道,首先要挖掘本校教师资源,利用奖励机制和优厚的待遇来鼓励有能力有实力的老师担任诊所的指导教师,其次要“借船出海”,广泛聘请具有丰富实践经验的律师和其他司法工作人员指导诊所运作。
译文:
Abstract This paper describes the Clinical Legal Education Facts and China's status quo and the Clinical Legal Education for the country's specific situation with China's unique development ideas.
Paper Keywords send the Clinical Legal Education Law grassroots elective courses
I. Overview of the Clinical Legal Education
The Clinical Legal Education is exotic, first appeared in the United Kingdom, as a practicing lawyer prospective lawyers do clerk and read a variety of legal documents, to learn from real-life case of legal knowledge, which can be considered the prototype of the Clinical Legal Education. Clinical Legal Education formally created in the late 1920s, University of Southern California School of Law, at which time the first man was John Bulai Wei. Real rise in the United States and as a method of education is to the 1960s. Clinical Legal Education School of Medicine clinic draws mode of education for students in a real Dubbed the 'legal clinic' where, under the guidance of teachers in trouble advising principals, 'Diagnostics' to their legal problems, open a 'recipe' to provide them with solutions to problems, and provide legal services. 

The Clinical Legal Education has been able to be the world legal community generally agree that it has a traditional legal education incomparable advantages: First, change the traditional teaching of the didactic, cramming method of teaching so that students' learning change from passive to the initiative. We can imagine two scenarios: the traditional teaching, teachers talk on stage, the audience of a large student drowsy. Clinic teaching, the students take the initiative to consult the merits, the access to information and to engage in collective consultation. Which teaching methods higher quality, can be imagined. Example of Tsinghua University Professor Wang Chenguang aptly put it: When a person as a passenger car, he may or may not remember driving route. But when he sat on the driver's position, he must recognize the road, remember and analyze road route. Secondly enhance legal education and social contact, even cultivate the students' sense of social responsibility. Law itself is a very practical subject, but it stems from social services in the community. Once detached from society, have become a source of water and without trees. Students studying in the ivory tower, the purpose is to serve the community after finished, use what they have learned to create value for society, if only knuckled down to study in the school does not have any contact with society, then after graduation will become an Empty full of legal theory but does not know to apply their knowledge nerd. Third in terms of social benefits from the use of this platform can give legal clinic in need of legal assistance to help vulnerable groups in society, because a seemingly small group of students standing behind may have profound theoretical and practical experience of law professors. Such social justice than the current legal aid system more effective, on the one hand but also to promote social harmony, on the other hand to enable students to learn the knowledge, increasing the practical experience, achieve win-win. The three functions of the contemporary university teaching, research, service to the community, which in the Clinical Legal Education can be reflected.
Second, the rest of the world the Clinical Legal Education and Chinese-style legal education clinics Situation
Currently the Clinical Legal Education world's most typical country is the United States. Nearly 130 law schools in the United States and most of them set up a clinical legal education courses. Numerous non-governmental organizations from the financial resources given strong support, such as the Ford Foundation in 1968 to $ 12 million one-time funding to support the establishment of legal clinics in major law schools. American Bar Association in 1989 set up a 'Working Group on Law and the Legal Profession' on the necessary legal practice skills in-depth study. For a time, the legal clinic has been greatly developed rapidly into a set of knowledge and education and skills training in a carrier, swept the nation. Harvard Law School to more than 30 clinics, for example, from domestic violence to children's rights, gender discrimination to health care, from commercial mediation to a rent dispute, the death penalty from criminal prosecution to the defense, to the policy of lobbying from the case agent from the local anti-terrorism to international human rights, almost all-encompassing. However, in the United States Clinical Legal Education full development, but also breeds a crisis of survival. Legal Clinic bigger and stronger, the suspects range naturally expanded to the general case of public interest litigation cases, as well as to promote institutional, legislative reform as the goal, so that governments and consortiums touched the interests of other authorities, Ever since the introduction of a series of policies to limit its development. Legal Clinic followed the case, it tends to take the initiative to avoid certain sensitive cases involving the interests of the authorities. This limits the legal clinic 'business' range, the students learn the impact, contrary to the original intention of establishing legal clinics.

enter the Clinical Legal Education in the field of legal education in China began in September 2000, in support of the Ford Foundation, the United States, China 7 universities set up a 'legal clinic Education 'course. China Law Society Legal Education Research Clinical Legal Education Committee (CCCLE) will be defined as: law students in a real or virtual 'legal clinic', when a lawyer practicing under the guidance of qualified teachers is in trouble provide the recipient with legal advice, 'diagnosis' of their legal problems, and open a 'recipe' to provide them with legal problems, and personally provide them with free legal aid services. From a legal clinic into China has been 11 years, due to their legal education has an unparalleled advantage in the past 11 years the Clinical Legal Education has been considerable development. As of June 18, 2010, Chinese Clinical Legal Education Committee (CCCLE) Total 134 member institutions, which already has 82 member schools opened clinic courses, for a total creation of 130 different themes clinic courses, clinics covering : civil, administrative litigation, negotiation and mediation, public interest litigation, consumer protection, weak rights protection of migrant workers legal services, legal services in rural areas. However, we see the Clinical Legal Education in the booming also should be noted that the existing problems, such as some law schools despite the creation of the legal clinic, but because of financial reasons or teacher little or no run, there are some Legal Clinic for the source case of insufficient barely functioning. Really well-known colleges and universities are those that have a strong financial and personnel support for legal clinics, these clinics graduating law students to provide a learning platform for legal practice. But the only drawback is that each session students are also able to enter the clinic to learn very little.
Third, on China's Education Law Clinic Style
Previously mentioned, due to social and legal services in the community, and the Clinical Legal Education ultimate goal is to enable students to really focus on the theoretical knowledge learned and social practice, and thus more profound understanding of the law, the use of skilled the law. So this is a very good law learning mode. However, due to different national conditions, copy the style of legal education clinics abroad obviously substandard Chinese reality, I believe that China's legal education clinics style unique to China should get out of the road. 

(A) and student graduation practice combine to send France to the grassroots graduation practice is to test an effective means of learning, consolidation of the knowledge play a role. Practice of law graduates whereabouts nothing more than public security departments, law firms and some of the company's legal department, went after mostly based on judicial practice and judicial procedures familiar mainly to really be able to use their knowledge of law is not quite up more. Although familiar with the judicial practice is also one of the purposes internship, this is understandable, but it should not be the sole purpose of internship. 

The current Chinese society most in need of legal help is in a rural or urban grass-roots people. In the marketplace of life of the people there were bound spat between neighbors and relatives disputes and friction between friends, because of their own cultural level is not high, when problems arise not know how to deal with, let alone use the law to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests of the. People's lack of knowledge of the law has become one of the factors of social instability, is not conducive to the establishment of a harmonious society. 
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