美国FDA原料药生产质量管理规范(上部分 中英文翻译)

日期:2018-02-11 / 人气: / 来源:http://www.rzfanyi.com/ 作者:译声翻译公司

  DIRECTION OF GMP (GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE )OF RAW MATERIALS BY FDA

  Table of Contents 目录

  1. INTRODUCTION

  1.1 Objective 目的

  1.2 Regulatory Applicability法规的适用性

  1.3 Scope 范围

  2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT .质量管理

  2.1 Principles 总则

  2.2 Responsibilities of the Quality Unit(s) 质量部门的责任

  2.3 Responsibility for Production Activities 生产作业的职责

  2.4 Internal Audits (Self Inspection) 内部审计(自检)

  2.5 Product Quality Review 产品质量审核

  3. PERSONNEL 人员

  3.1 Personnel Qualifications 人员的资质

  3.2 Personnel Hygiene 人员卫生

  3.3 Consultants 顾问

  4. BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES 建筑和设施

  4.1 Design and Construction 设计和结构

  4.2 Utilities 公用设施

  4.3 Water 水

  4.4 Containment 限制

  4.5 Lighting 照明

  4.6 Sewage and Refuse 排污和垃圾

  4.7 Sanitation and Maintenance 卫生和保养

  5. PROCESS EQUIPMENT 工艺设备

  5.1 Design and Construction 设计和结构

  5.2 Equipment Maintenance and Cleaning 设备保养和清洁

  5.3 Calibration. 校验

  5.4 Computerized Systems 计算机控制系统

  6. DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDS 文件和记录

  6.1 Documentation System and Specifications 文件系统和质量标准

  6.2 Equipment cleaning and Use Record 设备的清洁和使用记录

  6.3 Records of Raw Materials, Intermediates, API Labeling and Packaging Materials

  原料、中间体、原料药的标签和包装材料的记录

  6.4 Master Production Instructions (Master Production and Control Records)

  生产工艺规程(主生产和控制记录)

  6.5 Batch Production Records (Batch Production and Control Records)

  批生产记录(批生产和控制记录)

  6.6 Laboratory Control Records 实验室控制记录

  6.7 Batch Production Record Review 批生产记录审核

  7. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT 物料管理

  7.1 General Controls 控制通则

  7.2 Receipt and Quarantine 接收和待验

  7.3 Sampling and Testing of Incoming Production Materials 进厂物料的取样与测试

  7.4 Storage 储存

  7.5 Re-evaluation 复验

  8. PRODUCTION AND IN-PROCESS CONTROLS 生产和过程控制

  8.1 Production Operations 生产操作

  8.2 Time Limits 时限

  8.3 In-process Sampling and Controls 工序取样和控制

  8.4 Blending Batches of Intermediates or APIs 中间体或原料药的混批

  8.5 Contamination Control 污染控制

  9. PACKAGING AND IDENTIFICATION LABELING OF APIs AND INTERMEDIATES

  原料药和中间体的包装和贴签

  9.1 General 总则

  9.2 Packaging Materials 包装材料

  9.3 Label Issuance and Control 标签发放与控制

  9.4 Packaging and Labeling Operations 包装和贴签操作

  10. STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION.储存和分发

  10.1 Warehousing Procedures 入库程序

  10.2 Distribution Procedures 分发程序

  11. LABORATORY CONTROLS 实验室控制

  11.1 General Controls 控制通则

  11.2 Testing of Intermediates and APIs 中间体和原料药的测试

  11.3 Validation of Analytical Procedures 分析方法的验证

  11.4 Certificates of Analysis分析报告单

  11.5 Stability Monitoring of APIs 原料药的稳定性监测

  11.6 Expiry and Retest Dating 有效期和复验期

  11.7 Reserve/Retention Samples 留样

  12. VALIDATION .验证

  12.1 Validation Policy 验证方针

  12.2 Validation Documentation 验证文件

  12.3 Qualification 确认

  12.4 Approaches to Process Validation 工艺验证的方法

  12.5 Process Validation Program 工艺验证的程序

  12.6 Periodic Review of Validated Systems 验证系统的定期审核

  12.7 Cleaning Validation 清洗验证

  12.8 Validation of Analytical Methods 分析方法的验证

  13. CHANGE CONTROL 变更的控制

  14. REJECTION AND RE-USE OF MATERIALS.拒收和物料的再利用

  14.1 Rejection 拒收

  14.2 Reprocessing 返工

  14.3 Reworking 重新加工

  14.4 Recovery of Materials and Solvents 物料与溶剂的回收

  14.5 Returns 退货

  15. COMPLAINTS AND RECALLS 投诉与召回

  16. CONTRACT MANUFACTURERS (INCLUDING LABORATORIES)

  协议生产商(包括实验室)

  17. AGENTS, BROKERS, TRADERS, DISTRIBUTORS, REPACKERS, AND RELABELLERS 代理商、经纪人、贸易商、经销商、重新包装者和重新贴签者

  17.1 Applicability 适用性

  17.2 Traceability of Distributed APIs and Intermediates已分发的原料药和中间体的可追溯性

  17.3 Quality Management 质量管理

  17.4 Repackaging, Relabeling, and Holding of APIs and Intermediates

  原料药和中间体的重新包装、重新贴签和待检

  17.5 Stability 稳定性

  17.6 Transfer of Information 信息的传达

  17.7 Handling of Complaints and Recalls 投诉和召回的处理

  17.8 Handling of Returns 退货的处理

  18. Specific Guidance for APIs Manufactured by Cell Culture/Fermentation

  用细胞繁殖/发酵生产的原料药的特殊指南

  18.1 General 总则

  18.2 Cell Bank Maintenance and Record Keeping 细胞库的维护和记录的保存

  18.3 Cell Culture/Fermentation 细胞繁殖/发酵

  18.4 Harvesting, Isolation and Purification 收取、分离和精制

  18.5 Viral Removal/Inactivation steps 病毒的去除/灭活步骤

  19. APIs for Use in Clinical Trials 用于临床研究的原料药

  19.1 General 总则

  19.2 Quality 质量

  19.3 Equipment and Facilities设备和设施

  19.4 Control of Raw Materials 原料的控制

  19.5 Production 生产

  19.6 Validation 验证

  19.7 Changes 变更

  19.8 Laboratory Controls 实验室控制

  19.9 Documentation 文件

  20. Glossary 术语

  1. INTRODUCTION 1. 简介

  1.1 Objective 1.1目的

  This document is intended to provide guidance regarding good manufacturing practice (GMP) for the manufacturing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) under an appropriate system for managing quality. It is also intended to help ensure that APIs meet the quality and purity characteristics that they purport, or are represented, to possess.

  本文件旨在为在合适的质量管理体系下制造活性药用成分(以下称原料药)提供有关优良药品生产管理规范(GMP)提供指南。它也着眼于帮助确保原料药符合其旨在达到或表明拥有的质量与纯度要求。

  In this guidance, the term manufacturing is defined to include all operations of receipt of materials, production, packaging, repackaging, labeling, relabeling, quality control, release, storage and distribution of APIs and the related controls. In this guidance, the term should identifies recommendations that, when followed, will ensure compliance with CGMPs. An alternative approach may be used if such approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statues. For the purposes of this guidance, the terms current good manufacturing practices and good manufacturing practices are equivalent.

  本指南中所指的“制造”包括物料接收、生产、包装、重新包装、贴签、重新贴签、质量控制、放行、原料药的储存和分发及其相关控制的所有操作。本指南中,“应当”一词表示希望采用的建议,除非证明其不适用或者可用一种已证明有同等或更高质量保证水平的供选物来替代。本指南中的“现行优良生产管理规范(cGMP)”和“优良生产管理规范(GMP)”是等同的。

  The guidance as a whole does not cover safety aspects for the personnel engaged in manufacturing, nor aspects related to protecting the environment. These controls are inherent responsibilities of the manufacturer and are governed by national laws.

  本指南在总体上未涉及生产人员的安全问题,亦不包括环保方面的内容。这方面的管理是生产者固有的责任,也是国家法律规定的。

  This guidance is not intended to define registration and/or filing requirements or modify pharmacopoeial requirements. This guidance does not affect the ability of the responsible regulatory agency to establish specific registration/filing requirements regarding APIs within the context of marketing/manufacturing authorizations or drug applications. All commitments in registration/filing documents should be met.

  本指南未规定注册/归档的要求、或修改药典的要求。本指南不影响负责药政审理部门在原料药上市/制造授权或药品申请方面建立特定注册/归档要求的能力。注册/归档的所有承诺必须做到。

  1.2 Regulatory Applicability 1.2法规的适用性

  Within the world community, materials may vary as to their legal classification as an API. When a material is classified as an API in the region or country in which it is manufactured or used in a drug product, it should be manufactured according to this guidance.

  在世界范围内对原料药的法定定义是各不相同的。当某种物料在其制造或用于药品的地区或国家被称为原料药,就应该按照本指南进行生产。

  1.3 Scope 1.3范围

  This guidance applies to the manufacture of APIs for use in human drug (medicinal) products. It applies to the manufacture of sterile APIs only up to the point immediately prior to the APIs being rendered sterile. The sterilization and aseptic processing of sterile APIs are not covered by this guidance, but should be performed in accordance with GMP guidances for drug (medicinal) products as defined by local authorities.

  本文件适用于人用药品(医疗用品)所含原料药的生产。它适用于无菌原料药在灭菌前的步骤。本指南不包括无菌原料药的消毒和灭菌工艺,但是,应当符合地方当局所规定的药品(医疗用品)生产的GMP指南。

  This guidance covers APIs that are manufactured by chemical synthesis, extraction, cell culture/fermentation, recovery from natural sources, or any combination of these processes. Specific guidance for APIs manufactured by cell culture/fermentation is described in Section 18.本文件适用于通过化学合成、提取、细胞培养/发酵,通过从自然资源回收,或通过这些工艺的结合而得到的原料药。通过细胞培养/发酵生产的原料药的特殊指南则在第18章论述。

  This guidance excludes all vaccines, whole cells, whole blood and plasma, blood and plasma derivatives (plasma fractionation), and gene therapy APIs. However, it does include APIs that are produced using blood or plasma as raw materials. Note that cell substrates (mammalian, plant, insect or microbial cells, tissue or animal sources including transgenic animals) and early process steps may be subject to GMP but are not covered by this guidance. In addition, the guidance does not apply to medical gases, bulk-packaged drug (medicinal) products (e.g., tablets or capsules in bulk containers), or radiopharmaceuticals.

  本指南不包括所有疫苗、完整细胞、全血和血浆、全血和血浆的衍生物(血浆成分)和基因治疗的原料药。但是却包括以血或血浆为原材料生产的原料药。值得注意的是细胞培养基(哺乳动物、植物、昆虫或微生物的细胞、组织或动物源包括转基因动物)和前期生产可能应遵循GMP规范,但不包括在本指南之内。另外,本指南不适用于医用气体、散装的制剂药(例如,散装的片剂和胶囊)和放射性药物的生产。

  Section 19 contains guidance that only applies to the manufacture of APIs used in the production of drug (medicinal) products specifically for clinical trials (investigational medicinal products).

  第19章的指南只适用于用在药品(医疗用品)生产中的原料药制造,特别是临床实验用药(研究用医疗产品)的原料药制造。

  An API starting material is a raw material, an intermediate, or an API that is used in the production of an API and that is incorporated as a significant structural fragment into the structure of the API. An API starting material can be an article of commerce, a material purchased from one or more suppliers under contract or commercial agreement, or produced in-house. API starting materials normally have defined chemical properties and structure.

  “原料药的起始物料”是指一种原料、中间体或原料药,用来生产一种原料药,或者以主要结构单元的形式被结合进原料药结构中。原料药的起始物料可能是在市场上有售、能够通过合同或商业协议从一个或多个供应商处购得,或由生产厂家自制。原料药的起始物料一般来说有特定的化学特性和结构。

  The company should designate and document the rationale for the point at which production of the API begins. For synthetic processes, this is known as the point at which API starting materials are entered into the process. For other processes (e.g., fermentation, extraction, purification), this rationale should be established on a case-by-case basis. Table 1 gives guidance on the point at which the API starting material is normally introduced into the process.

  生产厂商要指定并用书面文件说明原料药的生产从何处开始的理论依据。对于合成工艺而言,就是“原料药的起始物料”进入工艺的那一点。对其他工艺(如:发酵,提取,纯化等)可能需要具体问题具体对待。表1给出了原料药的起始物料从哪一点引入工艺过程的指导原则。

  From this point on, appropriate GMP as defined in this guidance should be applied to these intermediate and/or API manufacturing steps. This would include the validation of critical process steps determined to impact the quality of the API. However, it should be noted that the fact that a company chooses to validate a process step does not necessarily define that steps as critical.

  从这步开始,本指南中的有关GMP规范应当应用在这些中间体和/或原料药的制造中。这包括对原料药质量有影响的关键工艺步骤的验证。但是,值得注意的是厂商选择某一步骤进行验证,并不一定将该步骤定为关键步骤。

  The guidance in this document would normally be applied to the steps shown in gray in Table 1. However, all steps shown may not be completed. The stringency of GMP in API manufacturing should increase as the process proceeds from early API steps to final steps, purification, and packaging. Physical processing of APIs, such as granulation, coating or physical manipulation of particle size (e.g., milling, micronizing) should be conducted according to this guidance.

  本文件的指南通常适用于表1中的灰色步骤。但在表中体现的所有步骤并不是将应用GMP管理的所有步骤全部体现出来了。原料药生产中的GMP要求应当随着工艺的进行,从原料药的前几步到最后几步,精制和包装,越来越严格。原料药的物理加工,如制粒、包衣或颗粒度的物理处理(例如制粉、微粉化)应当按本指南的标准进行。

  This GMP guidance does not apply to steps prior to the introduction of the defined API starting material.

  本GMP指南不适用于引入定义了的“原料药的起始物料”以前的步骤。

  2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2.质量管理

  2.1 Principles 2.1总则

  2.10 Quality should be the responsibilities of all persons involved in manufacturing.

  参与原料药生产的每一个人都应当对质量负责。

  2.11 Each manufacturer should establish, document, and implement an effective system for managing quality that involves the active participation of management and appropriate manufacturing personnel.

  每一个生产商都应当建立并执行一套有管理人员和有关员工积极参与的有效的质量管理体系,并使其文件化。

  2.12 The system for managing quality should encompass the organizational structure, procedures, process and resources, as well as activities to ensure confidence that the API will meet its intended specifications for quality and purity. All quality-related activities should be defined and documented.

  质量管理体系应当包括组织机构、规程、工艺和资源,以及确保原料药会符合其预期的质量与纯度要求所必需的活动。所有涉及质量管理的活动都应当明确规定,并使其文件化。

  2.13 There should be a quality unit(s) that is independent of production and that fulfills both quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) responsibilities. The quality unit can be in the form of separate QA and QC units or a single individual or group, depending upon the size and structure of the organization.

  2.13 应当设立一个独立于生产部门的质量部门,同时履行质量保证(QA)和质量控制 (QC)的职责。依照组织机构的大小,可以是分开的QA和QC部门,或者只是一个人或小组。

  2.14 The persons authorized to release intermediates and APIs should be specified.

  2.14 应当指定授权发放中间体和原料药的人员。

  2.15 All quality-related activities should be recorded at the time they are performed.

  2.15 所有有关质量的活动应当在其执行时就记录。

  2.16 Any deviation from established procedures should be documented and explained. Critical deviations should be investigated, and the investigation and its conclusions should be documented.

  2.16 任何偏离既定规程的情况都应当有文字记录并加以解释。对于关键性偏差应当进行调查,并记录调查经过及其结果。

  2.17 No materials should be released or used before the satisfactory completion of evaluation by the quality unit(s) unless there are appropriate systems in place to allow for such use (e.g., release under quarantine as described in Section 10 or the use of raw materials or intermediates pending completion of evaluation).

  2.17 在质量部门对物料完成满意的评价之前,任何物料都不应当发放或使用,除非有合适的系统允许此类使用(如10.20条款所述的待检情况下的使用,或是原料或中间体在等待评价结束时的使用)。

  2.18 Procedures should exist for notifying responsible management in a timely manner of regulatory inspections, serious GMP deficiencies, product defects and related actions (e.g., quality-related complaints, recalls, and regulatory actions).

  2.18 应当有规程能确保公司的责任管理部门能及时得到有关药政检查、严重的GMP缺陷、产品缺陷及其相关活动(如质量投诉,召回,药政活动等)的通知。

  2.2 Responsibilities of the Quality Unit(s) 2.2质量部门的责任

  2.20 The quality unit(s) should be involved in all quality-related matters.

  2.20 质量部门应当参与所有与质量有关的事物。

  2.21 The quality unit(s) should review and approve all appropriate quality-related documents.

  2.21 所有与质量有关的文件应当由质量部门审核批准。

  2.22 The main responsibilities of the independent quality unit(s) should not be delegated. These responsibilities should be described in writing and should include, but not necessarily be limited to:

  1. Releasing or rejecting all APIs. Releasing or rejecting intermediates for use outside the control of the manufacturing company

  2. Establishing a system to release or reject raw materials, intermediates, packaging, and labeling materials

  3. Reviewing completed batch production and laboratory control records of critical process steps before release of the API for distribution

  4. Making sure that critical deviations are investigated and resolved

  5. Approving all specifications and master production instructions

  6. Approving all procedures affecting the quality of intermediates or APIs

  7. Making sure that internal audits (self-inspections) are performed

  8. Approving intermediate and API contract manufacturers

  9. Approving changes that potentially affect intermediate or API quality

  10. Reviewing and approving validation protocols and reports

  11. Making sure that quality-related complaints are investigated and resolved

  12. Making sure that effective systems are used for maintaining and calibrating critical equipment

  13. Making sure that materials are appropriately tested and the results are reported

  14. Making sure that there is stability data to support retest or expiry dates and storage conditions on APIs and/or intermediates, where appropriate

  15. Performing product quality reviews (as defined in Section 2.5)

  2.22 独立的质量部门的主要职责不应当委派给他人。这些责任应当以文字形式加以说明,而且应当包括,但不限于:

  1. 所有原料药的放行与否。用于生产商控制范围以外的中间体的放行与否;

  2. 建立一个放行与拒收原材料、中间体、包装材料和标签的系统;

  3. 在供销售的原料药放行前,审核已完成的关键步骤的批生产记录和实验室检验记录;

  4. 确保已对重大偏差进行了调查并已解决;

  5. 批准所有的规格标准和主生产指令;

  6. 批准所有可能影响原料药和中间体质量的规程;

  7. 确保进行内部审计(自检);

  8. 批准中间体或原料药的委托生产商;

  9. 批准可能影响到中间体或原料药质量的变更;

  10. 审核并批准验证方案和报告;

  11. 确保调查并解决质量问题的投诉;

  12. 确保用有效的体系来维护和校验关键设备;

  13. 确保物料都经过了适当的检验并报告结果;

  14. 确保有稳定性数据支持中间体或原料药的复验期或有效期和储存条件;

  15. 开展产品质量审核(详见2.5节)。

  2.3 Responsibility for Production Activities 2.3生产作业的职责

  The responsibility for production activities should be described in writing and should include, but not necessarily be limited to:

  1. Preparing, reviewing, approving, and distributing the instructions for the production of intermediates or APIs according to written procedures

  2. Producing APIs and, when appropriate, intermediates according to pre-approved instructions

  3. Reviewing all production batch records and ensuring that these are completed and signed

  4. Making sure that all production deviations are reported and evaluated and that critical deviations are investigated and the conclusions are recorded

  5. Making sure that production facilities are clean and, when appropriate, disinfected

  6. Making sure that the necessary calibrations are performed and records kept

  7. Making sure that the premises and equipment are maintained and records kept

  8. Making sure that validation protocols and reports are reviewed and approved

  9. Evaluating proposed changes in product, process or equipment

  10. Making sure that new and, when appropriate, modified facilities and equipment are qualified 生产作业的职责应当以文字形式加以说明,并应当包括,但不限于以下内容:

  1. 按书面程序起草、审核、批准和分发中间体或原料药的生产指令;

  2. 按照已批准的指令生产原料药或者中间体;

  3. 审核所有的批生产记录确保其完整并有签名;

  4. 确保所有的生产偏差都已报告、评价,对关键的偏差已做了调查,并记录结论;

  5. 确保生产设施的清洁,必要时要消毒;

  6. 确保进行必要的校验,并有记录;

  7. 确保对厂房和设备进行保养,并有记录;

  8. 确保验证方案和报告的审核与批准;

  9. 对产品、工艺或设备拟作的变更进行评估;

  10. 确保新的或已改进的生产设施和设备经过了确认。

  2.4 Internal Audits (Self Inspection) 2.4内部审计(自检)

  2.40 To verify compliance with the principles of GMP for APIs, regular internal audits should be performed in accordance with an approved schedule.

  2.40 为确实符合原料药GMP原则,应当按照批准的计划进行定期的内部审计。

  2.41 Audit findings and corrective actions should be documented and brought to the attention of responsible management of the firm. Agreed corrective actions should be completed in a timely and effective manner.

  2.41 审计结果及整改措施应当形成文件,并引起公司责任管理人员的重视。获准的整改措施应当及时、有效地完成。

  2.5 Product Quality Review 2.5产品质量审核

  2.50 Regular quality-reviews of APIs should be conducted with the objective of verifying the consistency of the process. Such reviews should normally be conducted and documented annually and should include at least:

  A review of critical in-process control and critical API test results

  A review of all batches that failed to meet established specification(s)

  A review of all critical deviations or nonconformances and related investigations

  A review of any changes carried out to the processes or analytical methods

  A review of results of the stability monitoring program

  A review of all quality-related returns, complaints and recalls

  A review of adequacy of corrective actions

  2.50 原料药的定期质量审核应当以证实工艺的一致性为目的来进行。此种审核通常应当每年进行一次,并记录,内容至少应当包括:

  关键工艺控制以及原料药关键测试结果的审核;

  所有不符合既定质量标准的产品批号的审核;

  所有关键的偏差或违规行为及有关调查的审核;

  任何工艺或分析方法变动的审核;

  稳定性监测的审核;

  所有与质量有关的退货、投诉和召回的审核;

  整改措施的适当性的审核。

  2.51 The results of this review should be evaluated and an assessment made of whether corrective action or any revalidation should be undertaken. Reasons for such corrective action should be documented. Agreed corrective actions should be completed in a timely and effective manner.

  应当对质量审核结果进行评估,并做出是否需要整改或做任何再验证的评价。此类整改措施的理由应当文件化。获准的整改措施应当及时、有效地完成。

  3. PERSONNEL 3. 人员

  3.1 Personnel Qualifications 3.1员工的资质

  3.10 There should be an adequate number of personnel qualified by appropriate education, training, and/or experience to perform and supervise the manufacture of intermediates and APIs.

  3.10 应当有足够数量的员工具备从事和监管原料药和中间体生产的教育、培训和/或经历等资格。

  3.11 The responsibilities of all personnel engaged in the manufacture of intermediates and APIs should be specified in writing.

  3.11 参与原料药和中间体生产的所有人员的职责应当书面规定。

  3.12 Training should be regularly conducted by qualified individuals and should cover, at a minimum, the particular operations that the employee performs and GMP as it relates to the employee’s functions. Records of training should be maintained. Training should be periodically assessed.

  3.12 应当由有资格的人员定期进行培训,内容至少应当包括员工所从事的特定操作和与其职能有关的GMP。培训记录应当保存,并应当定期对培训进行评估。

  3.2 Personnel Hygiene 3.2 员工的卫生

  3.20 Personnel should practice good sanitation and health habits.

  3.20 员工应当养成良好的卫生和健康习惯。

  3.21 Personnel should wear clean clothing suitable for the manufacturing activity with which they are involved and this clothing should be changed, when appropriate. Additional protective apparel, such as head, face, hand, and arm coverings, should be worn, when necessary, to protect intermediates and APIs from contamination.

  3.21 员工应当穿着适合其所从事生产操作的干净服装,必要时应当更换。其它保护性用品如头、脸、手和臂等遮护用品必要时也应当佩带,以免原料药和中间体受到污染。

  3.22 Personnel should avoid direct contact with intermediates and APIs.

  3.22 员工应当避免与中间体或原料药的直接接触。

  3.23 Smoking, eating, drinking, chewing and the storage of food should be restricted to certain designated areas separate from the manufacturing areas.

  3.23 吸烟、吃、喝、咀嚼及存放食品仅限于与生产区隔开的指定区域。

  3.24 Personnel suffering from an infectious disease or having open lesions on the exposed surface of the body should not engage in activities that could result in compromising the quality of APIs. Any person shown at any time (either by medical examination or supervisory observation) to have an apparent illness or open lesions should be excluded from activities where the condition could adversely affect the quality of the APIs until the condition is corrected or qualified medical personnel determine that the person’s inclusion would not jeopardize the safety or quality of the APIs.

  3.24 患传染性疾病或身体表面有开放性创伤的员工不应当从事危及原料药质量的生产活动。在任何时候(经医学检验或监控检查)任何患有危及到原料药质量的疾病或创伤的人员都不应当参与作业,直到健康状况已恢复,或者有资格的医学人员确认该员工不会危及到原料药的安全性和质量。

  3.3 Consultants 3.3 顾问

  3.30 Consultants advising on the manufacture and control of intermediates or APIs should have sufficient education, training, and experience, or any combination thereof, to advise on the subject for which they are retained.

  3.30 中间体或原料药生产和控制的顾问应当有足够的学历,受训和经验,能胜任所承担的工作。

  3.31 Records should be maintained stating the name, address, qualifications, and type of service provided by these consultants.

  3.31 顾问的姓名、地址、资格和提供服务的类型都应当有文字记录。

  4. BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES 4. 建筑和设施

  4.1 Design and Construction 4.1 设计和结构

  4.10 Buildings and facilities used in the manufacture of intermediates and APIs should be located, designed, and constructed to facilitate cleaning, maintenance, and operations as appropriate to the type and stage of manufacture. Facilities should also be designed to minimize potential contamination. Where microbiological specifications have been established for the intermediate or API, facilities should also be designed to limit exposure to objectionable microbiological contaminants, as appropriate.

  4.10 用于中间体和原料药生产的厂房和设施的选址、设计和建造应当便于清洁,维护和适应一定类型和阶段的生产操作。设施的设计应尽量减少潜在的污染。如果中间体或原料药的生产有微生物限度要求,那么设施设计应相应的限制有害微生物的污染。

  4.11 Buildings and facilities should have adequate space for the orderly placement of equipment and materials to prevent mix-ups and contamination.

  4.11 厂房和设施应有足够空间,以便有秩序地放置设备和物料,防止混淆和污染。

  4.12 Where the equipment itself (e.g., closed or contained system) provides adequate protection of the material, such equipment can be located outdoors.

  4.12 自身能对物料提供足够保护的设备(如关闭的或封闭的系统),可以在户外放置。

  4.13 The flow of materials and personnel through the building or facilities should be designed to prevent mix-ups and contamination.

  4.13 通过厂房和设施的物流和人流的设计应当能防止混杂和污染。

  4.14 There should be defined areas or other control systems for the following activities:

  以下活动应当有指定区域或其它控制系统:

  4.15 Adequate and clean washing and toilet facilities should be provided for personnel. These facilities should be equipped with hot and cold water, as appropriate, soap or detergent, air dryers, or single service towels. The washing and toilet facilities should be separate from, but easily accessible to, manufacturing areas. Adequate facilities for showering and/or changing clothes should be provided, when appropriate.

  4.15 应当为员工提供足够和清洁的盥洗设施。这些盥洗设施应当装有冷热水(视情况而定)、肥皂或洗涤剂,干手机和一次性毛巾。盥洗室应当与生产区隔离,但要便于达到。应当根据情况提供足够的淋浴和/或更衣设施。

  4.16 Laboratory areas/operations should normally be separated from production areas. Some laboratory areas, in particular those used for in-process controls, can be located in production areas, provided the operations of the production process do not adversely affect the accuracy of the laboratory measurements, and the laboratory and its operations do not adversely affect the production process, intermediate, or API.

  4.16 实验室区域/操作通常应当与生产区隔离。有些实验室区域,特别是用于中间控制的,可以位于生产区内,只要生产工艺操作对实验室测量的准确性没有负面影响,而且,实验室及其操作对生产过程,或中间体,或原料药也没有负面影响。

  4.2 Utilities 4.2 公用设施

  4.20 All utilities that could affect product quality (e.g., steam, gas, compressed air, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) should be qualified and appropriately monitored and action should be taken when limits are exceeded. Drawings for these utility systems should be available.4.20 对产品质量会有影响的所有公用设施(如蒸汽,气体,压缩空气和加热,通风及空调)都应当确认合格,并进行适当监控,在超出限度时应当采取相应措施。应当有这些公用设施的系统图。

  4.21 Adequate ventilation, air filtration and exhaust systems should be provided, where appropriate. These systems should be designed and constructed to minimize risks of contamination and cross-contamination and should include equipment for control of air pressure, microorganisms (if appropriate), dust, humidity, and temperature, as appropriate to the stage of manufacture. Particular attention should be giving to areas where APIs are exposed to the environment.

  4.21 应当根据情况,提供足够的通风、空气过滤和排气系统。这些系统应当根据相应的生产阶段,设计和建造成将污染和交叉污染降至最低限度,并包括控制气压、微生物(如果适用)、灰尘、湿度和温度的设备。特别值得注意的是原料药暴露的区域。

  4.22 If air is recirculated to production areas, appropriate measures should be taken to control risks of contamination and cross-contamination.

  4.22 如果空气再循环到生产区域,应当采取适当的控制污染和交叉污染的风险。

  4.23 Permanently installed pipework should be appropriately identified. This can be accomplished by identifying individual lines, documentation, computer control system, or alternative means. Pipework should be located to avoid risks of contamination of the intermediate or ApI.

  4.23 永久性安装的管道应当有适宜的标识。这可以通过标识每根管道、提供证明文件、计算机控制系统,或其它替代方法来达到。管道的安装处应当防止污染中间体或原料药。

  4.24 Drains should be of adequate size and should be provided with an air break or a suitable device to prevent back-siphonage, when appropriate.

  4.24 排水沟应当有足够的尺寸,而且应当根据情况装有空断器或适当的装置,防止倒虹吸。

  4.3 Water 4.3 水

  4.30 Water used in the manufacture of APIs should be demonstrated to be suitable for its intended use.

  4.30 原料药生产中使用的水应当证明适合于其预定的用途。

  4.31 Unless otherwise justified, process water should, at a minimum, meet World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking (portable) water quality.

  除非有其它理由,工艺用水最低限度应当符合世界卫生组织(WHO)的饮用水质量指南。

  4.32 If drinking (portable) water is insufficient to ensure API quality and tighter chemical and/or microbiological water quality specifications are called for, appropriate specifications for physical/chemical attributes, total microbial counts, objectionable organisms, and/or endotoxins should be established.

  4.32 如果饮用水不足以确保原料的质量,并要求更为严格的化学和/或微生物水质规格标准,应当指定合适的物理/化学特性、微生物总数、控制菌和/或内毒素的规格标准。

  4.33 Where water used in the process is treated by the manufacturer to achieve a defined quality, the treatment process should be validated and monitored with appropriate action limits.

  4.33 在工艺用水为达到规定质量由制造商进行处理时,处理工艺应当经过验证,并用合适的处置限度来监测。

  4.34 Where the manufacturer of a nonsterile API either intends or claims that it is suitable for use in further processing to produce a sterile drug (medicinal) product, water used in the final isolation and purification steps should be monitored and controlled for total microbial counts, objectionable organisms, and endotoxins.

  4.34 当非无菌原料药的制造商打算或者声称该原料药适用于进一步加工生产无菌药品(医疗用品)时,最终分离和精制阶段的用水应当进行微生物总数、致病菌和内毒素方面的监测和控制。

 

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公司新闻相关问答
问:你们翻译公司从业多少年?
答:译声翻译公司成立于2010年,已经是一家具有近10年行业经验的老牌翻译公司。近10多年来,已为超过12,000位客户提供过专业的人工翻译服务,翻译的字数累计超过5亿字。
问:你们翻译公司以前做过生物翻译没有?
答:我们的生物翻译人员全都是有这行背景出身的,一是跟生物医药研发生产企业以及机构的翻译合作,主要是生物研究、相关产品的高标准翻译,二是之前在相关研究机构工作多年的。 另外我们还为生物方面的科研人士提供论文发表翻译,有资深的母语译员校对文稿。
问:为什么数字、字母也要算翻译字数?
答:根据中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T 19363.1-2003 对翻译行业服务规范的要求,中文字数统计是以不计空格字符数为计算单位的。而数字、字母也是包含在其中。而对翻译公司来说,数字和字母也要算翻译字数的原因还包括以下两个方面: 首先,我们的收费都是根据国家颁布的翻译服务规范来收取翻译费用,对待收费我们都是统一对待的,其次,数字和字母也是文章中的一部分,特别是在一些商务文件中,数字就是文件的主题,所以也是一样要收费的。 另外,纯数字字母需要核对、录入,比翻译一个词语更麻烦,翻译是大脑里面概念形成的,而纯数字字母是要严谨的核对、录入才能实现的,这将会花费更多的时间,所以我们会把数字和字母也算成字数。 但是有一种情况除外,如审计报告里面那种数据很多而且又不需要我们翻译可以直接保留的,这部分我们可以不计算在内。
问:为什么同传译员不能一人独自承担口译任务?(为什么就一个小时的会议,不能只请一名翻译)?
答:同声翻译是一个高强度的工作。一般情况下,同声翻译员每次连续翻译不得超过20-30分钟,所以需要2-3 名译员交替进行工作以保证会议的正常进行。 这也就解释了为什么1个小时的会,同样是需要请两名翻译,除非在极其特殊的情况下,我们一般不建议只用一名翻译。
问:是否提供上门翻译服务?
答:对于口译项目,一定可以。对于笔译项目,我们建议客户不采用这样的方式。因为翻译工作是一项需要团队合作的工作,我们有许多保密性很强的专业词汇库和语料库不能带出公司,因此,译员上门翻译,效果不一定是最好的,且会收取一定的上门服务费。但客户实在需要,我们一定会配合。
问:为什么标点符号也要算翻译字数?
答:①根据中华人民共和国国家标准GB/T 19363.1-2003 对翻译行业服务规范的要求,中文字数统计是以不计空格字符数为计算单位的。标点符号算翻译字数是统一的行业标准。 ②标点符号在不同的语种中,有不同的表达方式,例如中文的标点符号大多是全角的,英文的无特殊设置都是半角的,而且如果一句话或一段内容夹杂两种不同的语言,标点符号的规则就相对复杂,对于翻译文件来说,标点符号的部分也是很费时。 ③另外,标点符号在句子中对句子语境等的限制因素,使得标点对句子、对译员翻译判断等起到一定的要求。所以,该部分也要计算在内。 ④可能我们平时不是很注重标点符号,其实在文字表达中,标点符号的重要不亚于单字单词,一个标点符号可以改变全句话的意思,而我们的工作也是做到了这一点,保证每个标点符号的准确,保证译文表达的意思和原文一样。
问:你们译员团队的资历情况如何?
答:翻译公司的核心竞争力就是翻译人才的竞争。公司所有译员均为大学本科以上学历,80%为硕士研究生或博士研究生,大部分译员均具有全国翻译专业资格(水平)考试二级以上证书,具备5年以上不同专业背景的翻译工作经验,笔译工作量超过500万字以上,口译工作量达每年50至100场大中型会议。翻译审校团队由从业10年以上的资深译员和外籍专家组成。
问:为什么以“字符数(不计空格)”为统计标准而不是“字数”或者“中文字符和朝鲜语单词”?
答:以“字符数(不计空格)”已经普遍成为翻译行业字数统计的标准。在进行文章的字数统计之前,我们建议客户或者自动删去不必要进入统计的英文字符。剩下的汉字部分,包括标点符号和上下标都需要进入字数统计。因为我们处理的文章作为整体,标点符号是可以决定句子意思的元素,也就是说我们同样将标点符号的意思考虑进译文中了。化学式,数学公式上下标细节我们也都会考虑,并负责耐心的在译文中准确的书写,而处理这样的符号丝毫不比翻译更节省时间。我们建议作者将不需要翻译的内容包括符号尽可能删去,这样将使得字数统计更加合理。
问:是否可以一边编写原稿,一边翻译?
答:请在定稿之后再翻译。您可能希望尽快启动翻译项目,所以在起草过程中就让译者开始翻译,但实际上这样做往往比等原文定稿后再翻译费时更多,费用也更高,而且很可能更麻烦。更糟糕的是:原稿修改的版次越多,则最终译文出错的可能性就越大。
问:需要与你们公司什么人接洽翻译业务呢?
答:我们公司采取专属客服服务模式。为企业客户配备专属客服,一对一沟通具体翻译需求,组建专属译员团队。

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