英文经贸合同的语言特点及翻

日期:2018-09-23 / 人气: / 来源:http://www.rzfanyi.com/ 作者:译声翻译公司

     [摘要] 本文以词汇、句式结构作为切入点,通过用大量的词汇及实例分析国际经贸、商务合同的语言特征,并提出通过灵活运用顺译法、倒译法、拆译法等翻译技巧,使英文合同译文在文体风格及语言特征上与原文直接对应,从而达到用语规范,表述严谨通顺、文理准确的效果。 

  [关键词] 法律英语 合同 语言特征 翻译 
   
  合同,是签约各方设立、变更、终止民事权利义务的契约。英文合同作为法律文件,其语言有着独特的风格,具有正式、严谨、准确、专业化的特点。法学与语言学的交叉部分是法律语言学。法律语言语言学可以理解为运用语言学原理,来指导法学方面的实践和运用。由于合同严格界定合同主体各方的权利及义务,常使用结构复杂、冗长重叠的句子,还包含古体、生僻词语并大量使用法律术语,这些有别于普通英语而属于法律语言范畴的特征,成为了英文合同翻译的难点,为克服这些难点,本文以词汇、句式结构作为切入点,对英文合同主要是国际经贸、商务合同的文体特点进行分析,在“信、达、雅”这一翻译标准指导下,结合法律语言学的理论,遵循忠实、准确的原则,通过灵活运用顺译法、倒译法、拆译法、重组法等翻译技巧,使英文合同译文达到用语规范,表述严谨通顺、文理准确的效果。 
  一、英文经贸合同的词汇特征与翻译 
  根据英美法系的传统,由于合同是法律专业人员制作,为显示其职业优越性、权威性及神秘性,通常用词偏僻、晦涩难懂,具体表现在: 
  1.使用古语词以示庄严、凝重、保守、权威 
  由here, there, where与 in ,under, of ,to, by 构成的复合副词,如: hereby(因此,籍此),herein(于此处),hereinafter (在下文),hereof (于此,关于此点),hereunder(在…以下) ,herewith(同时,因此),thereafter(其后),therefore(因此),whereas(鉴于),Whereby (为何,凭什么),whereof (关于它),whereof (关于那个),aforesaid和abovementioned (如前所述),henceforth (自此以后)。这些古体字的使用,反映了契约性行文正式、庄重、古板的文体特征,在翻译时应有意识地使译文再现法律文书的这种风格,使用“兹”、“特”、“ 特此”、“谨”、“ 谨此”和 “之”等。请看例句: 
  WHEREAS, Party A desires to export to Party B the goods as specified in Exhibit A hereof (hereinafter referred to as the “goods”); 
  WHEREAS, Party B desires to import the Goods from Party A; 
  NOW, THEREFORE, the parties hereto do hereby agree as follows: 
  (NOW THEREFORE THIS CONTRACT WITNESSETH that it is hereby agreed by and between the parties hereto as follows :) 
  鉴于甲方愿意向乙方出口本合同附录A中所规定的物品(以下简称“货物”);鉴于乙方愿意从甲方进口上述货物,因此,双方特同意达成协议如下: 
  2.使用来源于拉丁语法语的外来法律术语以示冷峻、高雅 
  bona fide(真诚善意 good faith),ex parte (单方的 from one side ), null and avoid (无效 invalid ),inter alia(among others) ,versus (与…相对),vice versa (反之亦然),force majeure (不可抗力)。 
  3.使用专门术语及“行话”以显职业化及神秘感 
  在英文合同里,常出现法律术语及“行话”,如果译者不具有一定法律专业水平,没有英美法知识背景,很难理解词义,做到准确翻译。 
  damages (赔偿金), Tort (侵权),Specific performance(实际履行),Unilateral contract(单方合同),claim(索赔), now these presents witness\in witness whereof(兹特立约为据),in the presence of (见证人),for and on behalf of …(代表),without prejudice(相当于without affecting,不使合法权利受到损害,“在不损害….原则下”, “在不影响……的情况下”) 
  (1)Without prejudice to the Contractor’s entitlement to interest under Sub-Clause 92.10 and to terminate under Sub-Clause 101.1, the Contractor may, … suspend work or reduce the rate of work. 
  在不影响承包商根据第92.10款享有利息和根据101.1款终止合同的权利的情况下,……承包商可暂停工作减缓工作速度。 
  (2)IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have respectively caused this instrument to be executed in duplicate, as of the date first above written1487-1488. 
  本文一式两份,由双方分别于文首日期订立,特此为证。 
  4.使用特殊用语以示正式、严谨、规范 
  一些在普通英语里很少使用的连接词、修辞词及短语经常在合同英文中出现,如: 
  notwithstanding, provided(that),subject to,for the purpose of, in respect of,including but not limited to/including without limitation,unless and until, if and only if, by virtue of, where,where in the case, where otherwise, otherwise, unless otherwise, otherwise unless , until otherwise, otherwise or, otherwise than. 
  notwithstanding 译法与 although\though\even if引导的状语从句一样,译成:“尽管……”, “即使……”,但应注意的是该词所引导的并非是一个让步从句,它只跟名词性短语,不跟句子,所以在翻译时要采用增词法的翻译技巧适当补充词汇使其意思完整。 例如: 
  (1)Notwithstanding the foregoing, a Party hereby waives its preemptive right in the case of any assignment of all or party of the other Party’s registered capital to an affiliate of the other Party. 

  尽管上述规定,如果一方将其全部或部份注册资金转让给一家关联公司,另一方则在此放弃其优先购买权。 
  (2)The Works shall be measured, notwithstanding any general or local custom, except where otherwise specifically described or prescribed in the Contract. 
  除合同另有规定外,即使有一般的或当地的习惯,工程也应当被计算。 
  Provided that,notwithstanding 在普通英语中使用得很少,但在合同条款中却广泛使用。Provided that 与 if,but 意思相似。可译为“如果”、“若”或“但”,与if, when 或 where 引导的法律条件句没有本质区别。但如果Provided that 用在主句后,即表示与前一陈述相反的“例外”,是法律上的“但书”,相当于 with the exception of …如: 
  (3)Instructions given by the Engineer shall be in writing, Provided that if for any reason the Engineer consider if necessary to give any such instruction. 
  工程师应以书面形式发出指示,若工程师认为由于某种原因有必要以口头形式发出任何此类指示,承包商应遵守该指示。 
  where 在英文合同中做连接词使用时,常常不是指地方,不引导状语从句,强调在某种情况时处在……情况下,译成“如果”、“若”。Subject to 在法律英语中频繁出现,中文没有完全与之对等的词,应根据具体情况译为“在符合……的规定下”,“除……另有规定外”,“在不抵触……下”,其中心意思是“受制于……”有关条款,或须“依照”有关条款办事。但在英文合同中,它有着更广泛的意思,深刻理解好原文,必要时运用增词法才能准确把它翻译出来。例如: 
  (4)Where the Contract provides for payment in whole or in part to be made to the Contractor in foreign currency or currencies, such payment shall not be subject to variations in the rate or rates of exchange between such specified foreign currency or currencies and the currency of the country in which the Works are to be executed. 
  如果合同规定将全部或部分款额以一种或几种外币支付给承包商,此项支付不应受上述指定的一种或几种外币与工程施工所在国货币之后的汇率变化的影响。 
  (5)The Employer shall provide China Corporation Personnel free of charge with any necessary articles other than those listed in the Appendices of this CONTRACT, yet to be required for the smooth execution of the works, subject to consultation and agreement between the authorized representatives of the two parties at the Worksite. 
  本合同附件未列的、但为顺利实施本工程所必需的其他用品,应经双方工地授权代表协调同意后,由雇主免费提供。 
  (6)Except as is otherwise expressly provided herein, all disputes, controversies or differences arising between the parties out of or in relation to or in connection with this Agreement, or any breach or default hereunder (including but not limited to, a dispute concerning validity of the arbitral provision) which cannot be settled amicably shall be subject to arbitration. 
  除非另有明确表示,则与本协议有关或无关的协议双方的所有争议、纠纷或歧义,以及任何违约及过失(包括但不限于有关本协议存续的争议仲裁条款有效性的争议),如不能以友好协议的方式解决,则提交仲裁。 
  (7)Until otherwise notified in writing, the mailing addresses of the parties hereto for notices and communications, are as follows (unless otherwise specified in this Agreement). 
  除非另有书面通知,则双方的邮政通讯地址依下述为准(除本协议另有约定之外)。 
  5.重叠并列使用同义词、近义词以示沉稳、准确 
  如:null and void (无效), free and clear of(无,不存在),make and enter into(签订…),by and between (由…),in full force and effect (完全有效的),terms and conditions (条款),duty and obligation, duties and responsibilities(责任), duties and tariffs (关税),benefit and interest(利益),complaints and claims(索赔),release and discharge (免除、解除), fulfill or perform(履行),transferable or assignable(可转让的),procure and ensure(保证、确保), request and demand(要求), charges and fees, costs and expenses(费用)。在合同中并列使用这些相对固定或稳定的同义词、近义词,或是出于传统习惯和约定俗成,或是为了追求对合同语言的准确、语意确凿不引起歧义。在译成中文时,就要注意采用合二为一的方式